In reading the Book WAR POWERS, published in 1864, by Whiting, who was the Solicitor General of the War Department of The United States, it does not come as a shock to me that we are nothing but slaves of Congress, AKA the United States. Whiting was Lincoln's point man and developed the basis for Lincoln's justification of the War Policies. Whiting teamed up with Fancis Lieber who wrote the "Lieber Code" that we are now under. James Montgomery, a present day researcher, also has written extensively on the Reconstruction Acts and the Lieber Code and how they apply to Americans to this very day. After Whiting left office, the position that he held, was never replaced.
Many people believe the term "United States" is NOT separate and distinct from the term "United States of America", but that the two are synonymous. As I stated way back in 1990 and continue to state, America is a country, and the United States is NOT a country. The United States belongs to America. Since the phrase United States OF America contains the word "OF" between the two words United States and America, proper use of the word OF means the United States belongs to America. Another grammatical rule is that the phrase United States is a particular place and not a group of states united. To become a group of states the word United would have to appear as united States. The small "u" would change the word United from a noun to an adjective. To be grammatically correct, one would have to write united States of America to correctly mean all 50 States. But even that is not a country. Simply writing United States of America means only Congress, AKA the United States. A very simple proof is that when the TV airs the State of the Union message the President is always announced by stating, "I now present the President of the United States." He is never introduced as "the President of the united States of America". To be the President of the united States of America would mean that the Governors of each of the states would not have the final say on any laws passed in that state but would have to depend on submitting anything the Governor had to sign to the President for final approval.
As I have previously demonstrated in my other books, through copious government documents, both of the United States and England and history, that the common people never ratified the constitutions of any of the states, much less the United States, people still believe that they created the constitutions and are, therefore, the so called Sovereign. This sovereign status is claimed to mean that the people can tell government what and when to do anything through their perceived notion that they have representatives and these so called representatives are their servants. This is a myth that has been told people down through the centuries. This big lie is passed from generation to generation so much so that people of all walks of life now accept it as gospel truth. This myth has caused much dissent among the vast majority of people and and has even caused infighting amongst people called "patriots", "militia" and others of like mind. This WAR POWERS book is further support for my research and others such as Mr. Montgomery. I will lead into this myth by quoting Whiting and what this great authority on War Powers had to say back in 1864. This will be very short and as I read through the book I will add to this work of Fallacy and Myth. It will be unbelievable to many who still believe the Big Lie that they are sovereign and somehow have control of this supposed government they created and can dispense with it when it becomes oppressive as it has today. I hope you are ready because what follows are not my words but those of the author Whiting with the concurrence of all government branches. You also have to remember that we have been in a state of war with these people called Congress and the other two branches of so called government.
The United States is a belligerent government under the international law of nations and the people therein, yes you, dear reader, are the enemy subject and have never, ever, been a sovereign, and neither have your relatives as far back as 1787, UNLESS your relatives were among the aristocracy having land and money and possibly a grant from the Crown.
Before I get into the book, and to give you what we call modern day research, I have to start with 48 Stat 1 which Roosevelt shoved through in Executive Order 2039 without Congress on the 4th and 5th of March 1933. Then on March 9, 1933 Roosevelt convened Congress and basically told them what he did and that they had to sign off on it as he declared a national emergency. This National Emergency made the United States citizens enemies by adding them to the 1917 Trading with the Enemies Act by changing 5(b) of that Act to include Americans, which it never did before. This is you today.
The original draft was prepared by the Federal Reserve System, NOT Congress, and can be found in President Hoover's Papers that may be obtained from any Federal Depository. On March 3, 1933, President Hoover declared it to be unconstitutional and refused to implement what the Federal Reserve Board drafted. Immediately after taking office on March 4, 1933, after implementing what Hoover refused, the first thing Roosevelt did was to close the banks so they could be issued licenses by the President to deal with the enemy, who was defined now to be all people in the country. Immediately after that, each State set up its own Emergency War Powers regime to coincide with the United States. After thorough research in North Carolina by a team of 5 people, we came up with documentation between the United States and not only North Carolina but other States. It was to slowly induce people into obtaining licenses as now the people, being declared "public enemies," had to have licenses. The documentations showed how all people that were not required to have a license to drive were now required to have a license merely to travel as a right because they were the enemies. This documentation also showed how speed laws were set; how federal labor laws and unemployment compensation was legislated into the States; and the most important of all, the social security touted as "insurance", was in actuality a means of licensing the "enemy" to track their commerce under the trading with the newly revised 1917 Trading With the Enemy Act. This enemy surveillance is very evident today by the use of the social slave number called Social Security. It was instituted by the President, NOT Congress as most people believe. Oh sure, Congress passed legislation so it appears they instituted it, but under the war powers only the President institutes anything of importance and Congress under the constitutional war powers takes a second seat. They, in effect, become the puppets of the executive branch. While under the war powers,all branches that should come under the legislative branch and even the judiciary, are controlled by the executive department through the Commander-in-Chief.
Since 1933, and before then, we have always been under Executive Emergency Orders despite the fact that in 1974 all EXCEPT for section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act of 1917 was repealed. You can find it alive and well in Title 12 USC 95 (a) & (b). You can also find the other emergency war powers acts still existing from 1862 which have NEVER been repealed. They have their genesis from 12 Stat 319, and are 50 USC 212, 213, and 215 and 28 USC 2461 to 2465.
This is totally under military powers of the Commander in Chief, The President. This military Rule allows the civil government to operate as it all comes under administrative directives of the Commander In Chief. This explains the reason all courts fly the Executive's Commander In Chief gold fringe flag and all of its stationary bears the United States Executive Seal. Now that you know that you have been under executive Rule before and since 1933, I will now go back to the first President to institute the Emergency War Powers Act to make the people the enemy of the State. Roosevelt only made you the enemy of the banking cartel to protect them. That is why the private banking system Board can do as they wish with impunity. They even wrote in the law that the signature card you sign when opening a bank account, unbeknownst to you, states in the 35 to 38 page contract they are to give to you, that you assume the debt of the United States. This is unconscionable that you were never informed under the commercial law. This is your promise, assumpsit in legal terms, that obligates and binds you to pay the debt of the United States by becoming the surety. How many people would enter a contract like that, knowing they are responsible for the national debt? Since the Federal Reserve is a private corporation and was made the fiscal agent of the Treasury to collect and disburse money, or choses in action called Federal Reserve notes, is the reason the 1040 IRS Form is a return. A return of a use portion of the debt that is circulated around the nation by the enemy, AKA the people of America. This is a very insidious scheme and people have no idea it exists.
The first President to use the Emergency powers was Washington. He used it to institute the first private bank of the United States which was against all principles of the constitution. Then in order to control the banks in each of the separate states, which Congress could not do under the constitution, he made districts out of each of the states. So now you had states and district states and that is how the district courts of each state were formed so the United States could now have control where it dare not tread before. Once emergency had been declared then all done under this act is constitutional. Contrary to what people believe this act DID NOT set the constitution aside. It only operated in a different way under emergency powers.
Now with all of this in mind, and knowing that the Commander in Chief can operate above the Constitution when military rule under the Emergency Powers Act is invoked, we move to Lincoln's time and his Solicitor General of the War Department who wrote the book to show how common people have always been considered as nothing but mere chattel property of an aristocratic group called Congress. From the beginning this is the basis upon which people have slowly lost what rights they THOUGHT they had and the plan by means of which to get where we are today without a major rebellion by the people which almost took place in 1861 with the Southern States wanting to secede from the Union. That caused Lincoln to invoke the Emergency Powers Act in Order that he could control the Government without Congress. He did this under the guiding of the works of Whiting. Once invoked, Congress could do nothing to stop it, and the Courts, under this Act, cannot stop it at all. My comments, if needed, are in [brackets] so you know they are not from the book. Every jot and tittle is placed as recorded in the book. With that established let us move to the Book.
THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT OF THE GOVERNMENT TO APPROPRIATE PRIVATE PROPERTY TO PUBLIC USE, EITHER IN TIME OF PEACE OR IN TIME OF WAR.
"There is no restriction as to the kind or character of private property which may be lawfully thus appropriated, whether it be real estate, personal estate, right in action or in possession, obligations for money, or for labor and service. Thus the obligations of minor children to their parents, of apprentices to their masters, and of persons owing labor and service to their masters, may lawfully be appropriated to public use, or discharged and destroyed for public benefit, by Congress, with the proviso that just compensation shall be allowed to the parent or master."
[Now people, are you still sovereign? Did common people write such a constitution that would destroy the children so they could be taken by Congress without your consent? I think not.]
"The right to use the services of the minor, the apprentice, and the slave, for public benefit, belongs to the United States. The claims of all American citizens upon their services, whether by local law, or by common law, or by indentures, can be annulled by the same power, for the same reasons, and under the same restrictions that govern the appropriations of any other private property to public use."
[And you think that the people who fought for freedom would have written and ratified such a power to Congress by way of this constitution that you so dearly love? Are you stating to realize something is amiss?]
THE UNITED STATES MAY REQUIRE ALL SUBJECTS TO DO MILITARY DUTY.
"Slaves, as well as apprentices and minors, are equally subjects of the United States, whether they are or are not citizens thereof. The government of the United States has the right to call upon its subjects to do military duty."
[Now if you are Sovereign why do they call all subjects. They italicised the words, not I. Without a shadow of a doubt you are slaves to Congress. Do you have to wonder any more why the state can take your children and you are powerless to do anything about it? And the common people wrote and believe in a constitution that would allow a group of men called Congress to have so much power when they just fought for freedom? Was not Patrick Henry correct when he stated in the June 7th 1788 Convention that the Constitution, "Among other deformities, it has an awful squinting: it squints toward monarchy. And does not raise indignation in the breast of every American? Your President may easily become King. . . The army will salute him Monarch: your militia will leave you and assist in making him King and fight against you. And what have you to oppose this force? What will then become of you and your rights? Will not absolute despotism ensue?" And what of James Wilson when he voiced, "Henry looked upon "that paper" as "the most fatal plan that could possible be conceived to enslave a free people." Ok , so what does commit you to the wrath of Congress? It is stated in the book in big italic letters, which you all should look in a grammar dictionary to see what italics mean.]
"The general government of the United States has, in time of peace, a legal right, under the constitution, to appropriate to public use the private property of any subject, or of any number of subjects, owing it allegiance. Each of the States claims and exercises a similar right over the property of its citizens."
[As stated, the people are "SUBJECTS" of the Government just like the "subjects" of English Rule and the words in italics that control you as subjects are allegiance. Allegiance can be found in many ways. People are pledging the Pledge of Allegiance; claiming to be a citizen of either a State or of the United States; registering to vote; claiming to be a "resident" in the state of the forum; signing a signature card at the bank that obligates to accept the debt of Congress so you are bound by contract to pay, thereby becoming a "subject."; claiming that the constitution is yours; claiming the constitution was designed by people like you and that is the law that you must abide by. All are presumed to be allegiance. Now did this apply to all, even colored people? Why yes and this Book proves that the Constitution CREATED slavery, and that it took away the rights of citizenship of the colored people. Now, those people that argue that the 14th Amendment made the colored people free might be correct, but it also made the white people slaves when relying on the 14th Amendment, even though they became slaves to the establishment when declared enemies of the "State." The Book shows the misinformation used by people claiming that only white people were citizens. It also shows that the word citizen was used well before the 14th Amendment, as seen in the quotes below.]
"The only question is, whether this power is not exclusive, see Chirac v Chirac, 2 Wheat. 269; U.S. v Villato, 2 Dall. 372; Thirlow v Mass., 5 How. 585; Smith v Turner, 7 ib, 556; Golden v Prince, 3 W.C.C. Reports, 314
Congress may thus give the privileges of citizenship to any persons whatsoever, black or white. Colored men, having been citizens in some of the States ever since they were founded, having acted as citizens prior to 1788 in various civil and military capacities, are therefore citizens of the United States, see case of Dred Scott; which no part denies that if colored men were citizens of either of the states which adopted the constitution, they were citizens of the United States. ... If white subjects or citizens, owe labor or service, even by formal indentures, such obligations afford no valid excuse against the requisition of government to have them drafted into the militia to serve the country."
[Hence the President and Congress via the Constitution took away the rights of the colored people by declaring them property. The constitution, by which you people who read this; believe that you are sovereign; believe that common people drafted and ratified the constitution; believe that you own your property; believe that you are not subjects of a group of men called Congress, or that of legislators of the states; believe the Bill of Rights protects you; believe the constitution is the supreme law of the land . . . your beliefs are 100 percent wrong. What if I told you that this Book states that treaties and International law of Nations are supreme over even the constitution drafted by the aristocracy of this country and that even the state succumb to these treaties and International Law? This Book proves it. This Book had an advisory board of eight professors and eminent lawyers carrying L.L.D.; J.S.D.; S.J.D.; J.D., M.A.L.S.; F.R.B and Ph.D. to authenticate its contents written by the Solicitor General of the War Department of the United States. The Constitution that you claim you love so much, took away natural rights of man via the following]:-
INDEMNITY IS REQUIRED "But, when individuals are called upon to give up what is their own for the advantage of the community, justice requires that they should be fairly compensated for it; . . . (Amendments, Art. V, last clause,) "Nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation."
[The language of this amendment admits the right of the United States to take private property for public use. This amendment, being now a part of the constitution, leaves that right no longer open to question, if it ever was in question.]
"PUBLIC USE" What is "public use" for which private property may be taken? Every appropriation for the benefit of the United States, either for a national public improvement, or to carry into effect and valid law of Congress for the maintenance, protection, or security of national interests, is "public use."
[I end Chapter one of the Book on this note. The above are only parts gleaned from Chapter one of this 342 page book. Chapter one is only 31 pages. The word "Public" means government only and not the mass of people. It is limited to Congress or State Legislators. You common people have no representation whatsoever. All the Congressmen do is represent the United States corporation claiming they represent you in the district state that Washington created under the War Powers clause in 1791. In this chapter it explains the specific parts that are war powers clauses and they are; Article I, Section 8, Clauses 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16. The book also states that, "The preamble to the constitution declares the objects for which it was framed to be these" -- then it is quoted.]
REFERENCES AS TO THE CONSTITUTION, SHOWING THE WAR POWERS OF CONGRESS
The powers of the legislative department in relation to war are contained chiefly in the following sections in the constitution:-- Art. I., Sect.8, Cl.11. Congress may institute war by declaring it against an enemy. The President alone cannot do so. Also Congress may make laws concerning captures on land, as well as on water. Art. I., Sect.8, Cl 12. Congress may raise and support armies: and provide and maintain a navy. Art. I., Sect.8, Cl.14. Congress man make laws for the government of land and naval forces. Art. I., Sect. 8. Cl. 15. Congress may provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection, and repel invasion. Art. I., Sect.8, Cl. 16. And may provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States. The preamble to the constitution declares the objects for which it was formed to be these: "to form a more perfect Union; establish justice; insure domestic tranquility; provide for the common defense; promote the general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity."
[So in time of war, which falls under a national emergency, even though no shooting or invasion has occurred, the constitution that you so dearly love and would die for, is the very document that allowed all president Washington to declare the first emergency powers act to institute the first Bank of the United States; Lincoln to make the people and it's Union Members, the States, the enemy of the United States; Roosevelt to declare the national emergency in 1933 under the War Powers Act and the Trading With the Enemy Act; and the current President, Clinton to control you as citizen/subjects/slaves within the system designed and drafted by the landed aristocracy in treaty with the Crown. That is why the Solicitor, Whiting, stated that International Law of Nations and Treaty rein supreme, and not the Constitution when emergency powers are invoked. This I exposed by court cases in my book The New History of America. The Big Lie is now even more evident and I have just scratched the surface of the first chapter of eight.
In the second chapter we find Congress has the power under the War Power clauses to write statutes in aid of the President "in the final and permanent conquest of a public enemy." I cannot impress upon the reader the words "conquest and public enemy" and I implore you to study these words on your own in any library. This book pertains to the time of the "civil war" but has far reaching consequences in the principles it spells out.]
RULES OF INTERPRETATION
"Congress may pass such laws in peace or in war as they are within the general powers conferred on it, unless they fall within some express prohibition of the constitution. If confiscation or emancipation laws are enacted under the war powers of Congress, we must determine, in order to test their validity, whether, in suppressing a rebellion of colossal proportions, the United States are, within the meaning of the constitution, at war with its own citizens? Whether confiscation and emancipation are sanctioned as belligerent rights by law and usage of civilized nations? And whether our government has full belligerent rights against its rebellious subjects.
ARE THE UNITED STATES AT WAR?
War may originate in either of several ways. Civil war, within the meaning of the constitution, exists whenever any combination of citizens is formed to resist generally the execution of any one or all the laws of the United States, if accompanied with overt acts to give that resistance effect."
[Right here is proof that if Congress pass laws that are repugnant to human rights, and there has been a total erosion of many, many freedoms of Americans, as you well know, then they are stating that the people, who are perceived by the people themselves to be Sovereigns, are without any such power to correct the law or laws repugnant to their rights. If the people were truly Sovereigns as they claim, no such section in the constitution created by the common man would exist. For if in doing so, the people would have declared that they elected another King or dictator, and to thwart these rights the people claim as sovereign's, all the President or Congress has to do is invoke the Emergency Powers Act. Such was done in 1933 when people demanded their money from the banks that had stolen all their money. You know, the ones that you have signed the signature card agreeing to accept the National Debt. This right to seek a return of money deposited in the banks for safe keeping was thwarted by Roosevelt to protect all the banks, which, included his friend Rockefeller who owned the Chicago bank and would lose all his holdings if forced to return the people's money that was rightfully theirs. This was called suppression by government because they were suppressing a rebellion of the people to claim what was rightfully theirs from a private banking system that was now under the supposed control of the United States as it acted as the agent for the United States when the United States did away with a truly Independent Treasury by the Act of 1920 in the year 1921, making the PRIVATE Federal Reserve system the fiscal agent of the United States.]
"Hence it follows, that government, while engaging in suppressing a rebellion, is not deprived of the rights of a belligerent against rebels, by reason of the fact that no formal declaration of war has been made against them, as though they were an alien enemy -- . . . The right of a country to treat its rebellious citizens both as belligerents and as subjects has long been recognized in Europe, and by the Supreme Court of the United States* See Geo.III. Ch. 9 1777; Pickering Statutes, Vol. 31, page 312; President's Proclamation, April 16, 1861 and U.S. Statute at Large , 1861, App.P. 2. It has been decided, since this edition was in type, that citizens of the States in rebellion are considered as public enemies, and are not entitled to sue in courts of the United States.
[Although this Book deals with the Civil War, the principles laid out are for any emergency declared under the War Power clauses, not just the Civil war of the 1860's. But Roosevelt invoked that Act, which exists to this day. So the following must be read with this in mind when considering that a majority of people say there is no more constitution. There is a constitution, as it is constitutional for what the government does to you today under War Powers --- like take your land as most people in confrontation with farm land or wet lands would agree; confiscate car, home and whatever under the "war on Drugs" without due process of any law that would exist in time of peace; license and number all people to track the public enemies, being you. It behooves the reader to seek the definitions of "belligerent" in both legal and standard dictionaries. The United States, as belligerent IS the de facto government, as people state when reading the definitions closely. I am at this point, inserting what came off the Internet of the hearings before Congress of just one evidence of the confiscation of hundreds of thousands every year, that in time of peace and not under War Powers would have never taken place. When reading this keep in mind what you have already read and are about to read after this actual happening.
Introductory statement at the Judiciary Hearing, July 22, 1996. Rayburn Building.
To: House of Representatives/Committee on the Judiciary/Civil Forfeiture Reform I sincerely appreciate this opportunity to speak to you in person about my mother's experience with the abuse of our national civil forfeiture law, a law which ignores due process, encourages abuse by police and prosecutors, confiscates property from innocent law-abiding citizens and threatens our sacred honor with the tyranny of a police state. My mother is an 85 pound, 75 year old hardworking frugal lady, who chose to squirrel away any extra money she had rather than buy herself any of the things most people consider necessities. Although she has bought a few residential rental properties, she still tears Kleenex in half to stretch her money, and settles for eating half sandwiches rather than run up her grocery bill. She has never taken a vacation or missed a day's work in the business, but neither has she ever been to a shopping mall. She's always lived as though the next Great Depression would happen any day. By 70, she managed to save around $70,000 which she kept in her house because her Depression experience taught her not to always trust banks. In December of 1989, the U.S. Government came to my mother's home and took her savings from a floor safe in her basement. Three months later, they seized her home and two rental properties she owned. You need to know my mother was never charged with a crime, and the police acknowledged she was never part of my brother's marijuana ring conspiracy. Mom's biggest sin was allowing the adult son she loved to live next door to her. After my brother was indicted, he fled town. The government suspected she PROBABLY had allowed him to use her property illegally, and had PROBABLY been given cash earned by him illegally. As you know, asset forfeiture laws only require probable cause to seize property. Once property has been seized it is the owner's burden to prove innocence to the government. When this happened to Mom, I thought "innocent until proven guilty" would apply in her case and she would immediately get her cash back. Trusting the government, I didn't even hire an attorney at that time. I soon learned that under the Constitution a citizen isn't afforded innocent until proven guilty in civil forfeiture cases. She wasn't considered innocent and the government didn't have to prove anything. The $70,000 they took from mom was mostly old bills dated from the 60's and 70's and was covered with mold and mildew. The safe was rusted shut and had to be drilled open. Tragically, the FBI did not keep her cash in an evidence locker, but deposited her money into a bank, co-mingling it with other people's money and thus destroying her evidence and proof of innocence.
The morning government agents banged on Mom's door telling her they were there to seize her home, they included the local police, County Sheriff's Dept., U.S. Marshall's Service, several FBI agents, and IRS agents (about 20 in all). All this force to take some property from one, innocent, unarmed, law-abiding 70 year old, 85 pound woman. I immediately called our family attorney and he met me at Mom's house. It had previously been said to me by an agent, "They want to take everything your mother has a make her tell what she knows about your brother, and maybe it will make him come back, too !"
When I arrived at Mom's home she was in a daze. One agent had a camcorder going on her as she sat there in her old negligee at 8:00 AM. She said she asked the agents where she was suppose to live and was told, "I don't care where you go, but you have a half-hour to pack up and get out !" Thankfully, our attorney was able to reach an agreement that allowed Mom to "rent" her own house from the government until the case went to trial. The horror of the forfeiture squad invading her home still brings regular nightmares to mom 6 years later. I did everything in my power to convince the government agents that they were making a huge mistake and that mom was not a criminal. To them that didn't matter. Since they COULD seize her property, they did. An agent said to me, "When I first took this case to my boss, he said not even to mess around with it, that it was just another stupid marijuana case, until I showed him how many assets we could get!" I spent many, many cooperative and truthful hours trying to convince them that this was insane, and finally realized it would cost me more going to trial than her properties were worth. I eventually made a settlement with them and Mom got to keep a little of what she worked her whole life for. They took most of it, including her dignity and love for our government.
I am here for my mother and our Country. It is too late to help her case, and besides, I had the government sign a paper that they could never bother her again. I want to make sure they can never do this to another mother with a bad kid. I have been on this crusade since I saw a Readers Digest article in 1992, titled, Is It Police Work or Plunder, about nationwide forfeiture abuse and Congressman Hyde's effort to reform this law. I bought a computer, joined an Online Internet Service and have been e-mailing thousands of unaware citizens to educate them about this barbaric civil forfeiture law.
Nobody thinks it is right when they learn how it is used, except prosecutors who do not want a proof provision in the law. One prosecutor told me, "Citizens don't need a proof provision, those in charge of a case are perfectly capable of determining who is guilty!" That statement, I was told by a Constitutional law professor, is the definition of tyranny. I love the America I knew growing up in the 40's and 50's, but am scared to death of the police state this Country could become with more and more laws allowing forfeiture. IT HAS TO STOP. Our Founding Fathers put their lives on the line against tyranny and cavalier attitudes. In my opinion, no real or personal property should be forfeited except in criminal cases. Eliminate this ridiculous, insane, corrupting law, or re-write it to include meaningful proof, fairness and compassion. It is ruining people's lives and is just another national disgrace.
Note: Mom eventually took her own life over this matter. End of testimony
Now please read the rest of this Book more closely or go back and refresh your memory before reading further. This could very well happen to you. This man, speaking for his mother has no idea he is talking to the proverbial foxes guarding the status quo to see that it is kept intact and paying lip service to correct what they know cannot be corrected unless the President declares, #1 a repeal of 12 Stat 319. #2 a repeal of 12 USC 95 (a) & (b). #3 A repeal of section 5 (b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act as written in 48 Stat 1.]